Acute and chronic are two types of kidney failure in cats. Each has different causes, treatments, and outlooks.
Acute renal failure develops suddenly, over a matter of days or weeks. It happens in cats of all ages and is usually the result of:
1. Toxicity/ poisons: , which are the most common cause of acute renal failure. It includes antifreeze, toxic plants like lilies, pesticides, cleaning fluids, and certain human medications. For example single tablet of ibuprofen can lead to their kidneys failure.
2. Trauma, especially involving a broken pelvis or ruptured urinary bladder.
3. Hypovolemic shock or rapid dehydration, heat stroke, persistent vomiting and diarrhea can all cause a big dip in fluids.
4. Infection in the kidneys.
5. Urinary obstruction/ dysuria/ stranguria.
Symptoms- anorexia, lethargy, depression, vomition, diarrhoea,increased urine output initially which decreases as disease progresses.
A 2 year old male mixed breed cat was presented to hospital with history of not eating, elevated kidney function values, vomiting and lethargy.
Physical examination revealed dehydration, oral cavity ulceration, lethargy. ultrasonography showed enlarged kidneys. Acute renal failure was diagnosed based on the ultrasonography, blood parameters and physical exam.
Treatment included I/v fluids, antibiotics, diuretics, antacids,antiemetics, multivitamins and supportive therapy. Close monitoring for urine output and kidney parameters was done. The pet showed marked improvement and was discharged after a brief hospital stay and follow up treatment was done on an OPD basis. The pet is currently active and alert with normal kidney values.
Advice for Pet parents: Cats are curious!!! You never know what they may ingest causing kidney failure! If in doubt, consult your vet!